When people move out of state, they take their income–and state taxes–with them. A new map compares the states on how much money they’ve lost due to people moving out of state. Minnesota ranks #38, meaning it has lost more than the average state.

Over the years 1999-2009, Minnesota lost $3.5 billion in personal income due to people leaving the state, according to IRS data crunched by the Tax Foundation. By contrast, Wisconsin lost “only” $1.7 billion, while South Dakota gained $500 million.

The big losers were Ohio (#46, -$14.8 billion); New Jersey (#47, -$15.5 billion); Illinois (#48, -$20.9 billion), California (#49, $27 billion), and New York (#50, -$45 billion). Florida was the big winner ($70 billion), followed by Arizona ($18.9 billion), Texas ($16.6 billion), North Carolina ($16.5 billion) and Nevada ($12.4 billion). Every Midwestern state lost money, save for South Dakota (#24, +$500 million). Indiana (#39, -$3.9 billion) suffered slightly more than Minnesota. Other Midwestern states doing better than Minnesota (though still losing money): North Dakota, Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, Kansas.

It does not appear that the numbers are in any way adjusted for state population in 1999, which does something to weaken the point of the comparison. (States with large populations, such as California and New York, will tend to have larger absolute losses of income compared with states with smaller populations.)

According to a technical note from the Tax Foundation, the numbers represent “the net aggregate AGI (adjusted gross income) of migrants moving in and out of the state between January 1st, 1999 and January 1st, 2009. Figures are in real 2009 dollars. Does not include foreign migration, births, or deaths.”